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Parcours d’un forestier plutôt européen

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Toutes les publications dans une longue liste

vendredi 12 janvier 2018, par Christophe Orazio

  • Christophe Orazio. REINFFORCE : Exploring drougth impact on Pseudotsuga. 2021.

  • Serrano-León H, Ahtikoski A, Sonesson J, et al. From genetic gain to economic gain: simulated growth and financial performance of genetically improved <i>Pinus sylvestris</i> and <i>Pinus pinaster</i> planted stands in France, Finland and Sweden. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research. 2021:cpab004. Available at: Consulté mars 1, 2021.
    Résumé : Abstract The translation of genetic gains into economic gains is important for evaluating the impact of using genetically improved forest reproductive material (FRM) in the forest sector. However, few studies based on European forests have been published to date. Here, we analyse the stand-level wood production and financial performance of planting genetically improved FRM in even-aged planted forests focusing on four European case studies with advanced breeding programme material and different management contexts: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in southern Finland, central Sweden and central France, and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in southwestern France. The growth of improved stands was simulated using species-specific growth models by incorporating two levels of expected genetic gains (present and next generations of seed orchards, varying from 7 to 40 per cent depending on the breeding programme) into the estimated mean annual volume increment over a rotation (m3 ha−1 yr−1). For each level of genetic gain, we tested the plantation of improved FRM managed with two silvicultural scenarios (maintaining the standard baseline rotation and thinning regime vs shorter rotation through the earlier achievement of the recommended felling criteria) in comparison with the plantation of the reference unimproved material (absence of genetic gain) managed according to the standard silvicultural regime. The use of improved FRM resulted in a larger financial performance in terms of soil expectation value (SEV € ha−1, discount rate 3 per cent) than planting unimproved reference material in all case studies and silvicultural scenarios for different wood price contexts (SEV gain from +20 to +190 per cent depending on the genetic and silvicultural context). The challenges associated with the economic assessment of realized gains from genetically improved FRM are discussed. We argue that silvicultural guidelines should be adapted to the use of improved FRM in order to gain better financial performance and flexible silvicultural response of planted forests to future environmental and socio-economic changes.

  • Tuomasjukka D, Den Herder M, Kunttu J, et al. Sustainability Assessment of current and recommended methods. TECH4EFFECT project report. Helsinki: Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke),; 2021. Available at: Consulté sans date.
  • Brunier L, Orazio C. Fiche n°12, Le nématode du Pin au Portugal. Dans: Louise Brunier, Frédérique Delport, Xavier Cauquelin, éd. Guide de gestion des crises sanitaires en forêt - 2ème édition. RMT AFORCE. Paris, France: CNPF-IDF; 2020:184.

  • Orazio C, Freer-Smith P, Payn T, Fox T. 12. Species choice, planting and establishment in temperate and boreal forests: meeting the challenge of global change. Dans: Stanturf J, éd. Achieving sustainable management of boreal and temperate forests. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing.; 2020:397-412. Available at: Consulté sans date.

  • Jactel H, Desprez-Loustau M-L, Battisti A, et al. Pathologists and entomologists must join forces against forest pest and pathogen invasions. NeoBiota. 2020;58:107-127. Available at: Consulté juillet 10, 2020.
    Résumé : The world’s forests have never been more threatened by invasions of exotic pests and pathogens, whose causes and impacts are reinforced by global change. However, forest entomologists and pathologists have, for too long, worked independently, used different concepts and proposed specific management methods without recognising parallels and synergies between their respective fields. Instead, we advocate increased collaboration between these two scientific communities to improve the long-term health of forests. Our arguments are that the pathways of entry of exotic pests and pathogens are often the same and that insects and fungi often coexist in the same affected trees. Innovative methods for preventing invasions, early detection and identification of non-native species, modelling of their impact and spread and prevention of damage by increasing the resistance of ecosystems can be shared for the management of both pests and diseases. We, therefore, make recommendations to foster this convergence, proposing in particular the development of interdisciplinary research programmes, the development of generic tools or methods for pest and pathogen management and capacity building for the education and training of students, managers, decision-makers and citizens concerned with forest health.

  • Orazio C. O6.5 -Examples of trade-offs and multiple ecosystem services assessment in the integrated management of maritime pine landscapes. 2020. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : Maritime pine forest being installed planting improved tree material after ploughing to produce mainly wood for industries is often perceived as an industrial forest providing only wood. On the last decade many studies demonstrated that the system is much more integrated than it appears. In past studies, we set up indicators to link the deadwood remaining from the management activities to the biodiversity, the mushroom picking and other externalities have been estimated in a short study of 2010. In addition, INTEGRAL project offered the opportunity to analyse possible trajectories of many ecosystem services depending on the political choices done afterthe storm. A recent project SUSTFOREST+ is exploring the options to combine resin and wood production diversifying the production function. Following the recommendation from the SIMWOOD handbook, projects such as T4effect analyse ecosystem services consequences of increasing stump harvesting or TREFFOR looking at opportunities to intensify wood production using pines in more agricultural landscapes. On the top of this integrated management analysis, the question of landscape organisation for a better resilience to the main risks was discussed in a project promoting integrated risk management (FORRISK) and has been implemented in a just ending project PLURIFOR establishing risk management plans

  • Pötzelsberger E, Lapin K, Brundu G, et al. Mapping the patchy legislative landscape of non-native tree species in Europe. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research. 2020:cpaa009. Available at: Consulté juin 4, 2020.
    Résumé : Abstract Europe has a history rich in examples of successful and problematic introductions of trees with a native origin outside of Europe (non-native trees, NNT). Many international legal frameworks such as treaties and conventions and also the European Union have responded to the global concern about potential negative impacts of NNT that may become invasive in natural ecosystems. It is, however, national and regional legislation in particular that affects current and future management decisions in the forest sector and shapes the landscapes of Europe. We identified all relevant legal instruments regulating NNT, the different legal approaches and the regulatory intensity in 40 European countries (no microstates). Information on hard and effective soft law instruments were collected by means of a targeted questionnaire and consultation of international and national legislation information systems and databases. In total, 335 relevant legal instruments were in place in June/July 2019 to regulate the use of NNT in the investigated 116 geopolitical legal units (countries as well as sub-national regions with their own legislation). Countries and regions were empirically categorized according to ad hoc-defined legislation indicators. These indicators pay respect to the general bans on the introduction of non-native species, the generally allowed and prohibited NNT, approval mechanisms and specific areas or cases where NNT are restricted or prohibited. Our study revealed a very diverse landscape of legal frameworks across Europe, with a large variety of approaches to regulating NNT being pursued and the intensity of restriction ranging from very few restrictions on species choice and plantation surface area to the complete banning of NNT from forests. The main conclusion is that there is a clear need for more co-ordinated, science-based policies both at the local and international levels to enhance the advantages of NNT and mitigate potential negative effects.

  • Meredieu C, Bernier F, Cheval N, et al. Data on early survival and tree dimensions of 6 species and their provenances planted in 14 arboreta in France. 2020. Available at: Consulté juin 4, 2020.
    Résumé : To anticipate European climate scenarios for the end of the century, the REINFFORCE (RÉseau INFrastructure de recherche pour le suivi et l’adaptation des FORêts au Changement climatiquE) arboreta network was established. This data set contains data from in 10 sites, where 6 selected tree species are represented. This data allow to calculate survival and growth. This data will help to identify those species that are more tolerant of climate variation and those of which the growth and survival future climate might constrain.
  • Collet C, Bilot N, Boulanger V, et al. Dernières innovations sur la plantation forestière Contribution de la R&D pour accompagner les évolutions attendues dans les pratiques. Forêt-entreprise. 2020;(250):6-11.

  • Orazio C. Developing evidence-based cases for planted forests. IUFRO Spotlight. 2020;(81):3. Available at: Consulté sans date.

  • Serrano-León H. The REINFFORCE infrastructure network for monitoring and adapting Atlantic forests under a changing climate. First empirical evidences on the potential adaptive performance of alternative species. 2020. Available at: Consulté sans date.

  • Régolini M, Meredieu C, Jactel H, et al. Multi-criteria analysis to compare multiple risks associated with management alternatives in planted forests. Forest Systems. 2020;29(2):e004. Available at: Consulté août 26, 2020.
    Résumé : Aim of study: Adaptation of silviculture in planted forest may help to mitigate damage due to biotic and abiotic hazards. However, compromises have to be found because it is not possible to minimize the risk from all hazards through application of a single forest management approach. The objective of this study was to improve a multi-criteria risk analysis (MCRA) method that makes it possible to rank forest management alternatives (FMAs) according to multiple risks. Material and Methods: We defined eight FMAs for maritime pine forests in France, Spain and Portugal. We used as the definition of risk the combination of hazard, susceptibility and exposure. Hazard level was estimated using archive data on occurrence and severity of damaging agents over the last few decades. Forest susceptibility to hazards was evaluated by experts who scored the effect on stand resistance of eleven silvicultural operations characterizing each FMA. Exposure was estimated as value at stake, which combined forest standing volume, simulated with forest growth models, and wood prices.Main Results: Using the PROMETHEE algorithm, we found that the overall ranking of FMAs was consistent across all countries, with short rotation plantations to produce pulpwood or energy wood were the least at risk. The ranking was mainly driven by forest values at stake. We found that by improving the accuracy of forest values exposed to damage, based on growth models and representative wood prices, the MCRA outcomes were more useful and realistic.Research highlights: Our methodology provides a relevant framework to design FMAs that would minimize risks while maintaining income.Keywords: Pinus pinaster; vulnerability; hazards; growth modelling; expert assessment; wood price; southwestern Europe.

  • Clopeau A. Sustainability of resin production systems in Europe according to harvesting methods and contexts based on the evolution of the international pine resin market. 2020. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : The European natural resin extraction industry went through a period of deep crisis during the end of the last century. Public and Private initiatives have been taken in Spain, France and Portugal. The main initiatives implemented are presented in this study which was carried out as part of SustForest+ Project, funded by Interreg Sudoe and the European Regional Development Found (ERDF). First, the study consists in a description of the different production contexts in the world and the associated harvesting methods. This technical information is supplemented by economic data on the past and current resin market. This state of play makes it possible to formulate proposals concerning the evolution of the international resin market. Two scenarios are proposed, favorable or unfavorable to the development of resin production in Europe. The European potentialities of production are then estimated by cost-benefit analysis for each method in each European country, in order to know the profitability thresholds in different production contexts and thus to estimate the viability and sustainability of the various forest management systems designed to harvest resin in south west Europe.

  • Orazio C. Methodological issues and outputs of the REINFFORCE network - a unique transnational infrastructure of tree species arboreta for the adaptation of planted forests to future climate. 2019. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : Predicting the future responses of productive forests and choosing the best-adapted regeneration material to climate change requires transnational infrastructures that provide evidence-based knowledge of the response of multiple tree species under a wide range of climatic conditions. This is why REINFFORCE was established as a unique network of demonstration sites to test the field performance and adaptation of 32 tree species from all over the world, including currently established and alternative productive species/provenances. The network made of 38 arboreta with common genetic material distributed along the European Atlantic arc (latitudes 37° to 58° N).This latitudinal gradient, covering a large diversity of climate and soil conditions, allows assessing the response of 120,000 tested trees from 176 provenances to current and anticipated future climatic conditions outside their current distribution range. We present methodological issues for the establishment, maintenance and coordination of the transnational network between the multiple partners, based on the common protocols and consolidated database for long-term monitoring and knowledge sharing. The latest outputs in methodological innovation include a harmonized field protocol for phenology assessment, height measurements with drone technology, and the use of the arboreta network as sentinels for emerging pests and diseases.The successful experience of the REINFFORCE network provides a strategic research platform for transnational cooperation and creates synergies with other research initiatives on forest adaptation to climate change. The latest research findings provides evidences and decision support for multiple forest stakeholders to increase the adaptation of the planted forests facing future climate uncertainty.

  • Jactel H, Branco M. Urban trees facilitate the establishment of alien forest insects. 2019. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : We investigate whether urban trees are main facilitators of establishment of alien forest insects. Based on scientific literature and a pan European database on alien invasive species we analysed where introduced forest insects were first detected in European countries. In total 508 first country-specific records were retrieved. We collected site location data, tree cover density and urban landscape suitable habitats (green areas with trees) in buffers (of 500 m radius) around detection points. Large majority of first records were found in urban or peri-urban areas (within 10km from city limits), varying from 81% for bark beetles and wood borers to 92 % for sap feeders and seed or fruit feeders. Only 7% of the cases were found in forests far from cities. Some reports were in rural areas and nurseries. Site types of first detection in cities were highly variable including, public parks, street trees, zoos and botanical gardens. More than 72% of the cases occurred in sites with less than 20% of tree cover proportion in term of surface. More than 50% of the cases in urban areas had less than 10% proportion of suitable habitat. We conclude that urban forest areas and urban trees are hotspots for the establishment of forest pests and that should be intensely surveyed.

  • Orazio C, Yoga S. Silvalert: reporting forest damages in South West Europe. 2019. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : Abstract Forest ecosystems occupy more than 30% of the land area in South West Europe. Forests in France, Portugal, and Spain are vulnerable to the increasing occurrence of biotic and abiotic hazards. Forest hazards can cause important and complex damages visible even beyond administrative borders. The risk of occurrence of multiple forest hazards has remained high for the past years requiring an on-going surveillance program by local forest authorities. Collecting field data on a regular basis is, however, cost-demanding. Participatory observations can help improve and diversify data collection. Silvalert is a mobile application that has been designed to report forest damages caused by diverse hazards. It is an open access application that can be downloaded after registration. The application has a simple user-friendly interface built to geolocate and capture photos of an encountered forest damage. Forest users can create offline reports and provide information on the type, extent, or severity of a forest damage. The information can later be uploaded to a server when internet coverage/signal is recovered. Reports are verified by the forest authorities who can use them as decision tools to determine for example, where to conduct extensive field surveillance. They are open access to the registered users who can visualize the type and extent of reported forest hazards which are currently prevailing at a European scale. Scientists can have an exhaustive access to all the reports and associated data.

  • Brus R, Pötzelsberger E, Lapin K, et al. Extent, distribution and origin of non-native forest tree species in Europe. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. 2019;34(7):533-544. Available at: Consulté août 26, 2020.

  • Orazio C. Plantation's role in the forestry palette. EFI blog. 2019. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : The recent EFI Scientific Seminar in Aberdeen was an opportunity to remind ourselves of the important role plantation forests play. The area of planted forests is increasing, both in the UK and worldwide, led by two main drivers: Offsetting carbon is the obvious one for countries like the UK that want to meet their goals for the Paris Agreement. In the UK’s case, it aims to plant about 15000 ha per year. A recent paper estimated the global reforestation potential at 0.9M ha, demonstrating that so far land availability is not an issue, even in EU. The challenge is then to plant the right tree in the right place with the appropriate technique. Increasing bioeconomy demand – more population, more substitution – is another strong driver. Even though global plantation area increases while forest areas decrease, the annual increase of 1.2% observed over the last decade is lower than the 2.4% needed to meet demand, which will double by 2050. A third driver of plantation expansion is climate change itself; with more disasters and diseases affecting forests, the replacement of large areas will require appropriate afforestation plans, but with high resilience. Genetic resources are key to success and will have to be characterised by much more than provenance tracking. Sustainability for all intensification measures such as fertilisation, mechanisation, and breeding will have to be assessed more precisely. Using non-native tree species Worldwide, 81 – 82% planted forests consist of native trees, but in Europe some large areas were planted with exotic species. About 150 Non Native Tree species (NNT) are present in Europe, but only a few (7 species) are widely used. Their productivity is on average 30% higher than native species in the same situation. Our current limited knowledge of the genetics of some NNT needs to be improved, so we can evaluate better their potential and eventual risk. In most cases, soils are improved by the introduction of NNT, but biodiversity is often lower in these stands – this together with a fear of invasiveness is leading to legal restriction of NNT in some European countries. Forestry is about people Polarisation around plantation topics is a (re?) emerging strong trend. Part of this comes from the feeling of companies or private owners making money – which is not an ecosystem service – from a common good without re-examining all the benefits and investments associated with this. Policy makers have a role to play as they can feed the polarisation or explore creative non-binary solutions based on scientific knowledge through policy tools such as regulation, financial incentives, and information/advice. A good example of politically driven depolarisation was the example of Scotland’s forest strategy design, which used participatory processes. Are foresters prepared enough for this dialogue, being so convinced that growing trees is good for the planet? Should we dedicate capacity building to developing know-how on conflict management related to plantations, or do we assume that explaining the least bad options will be enough? A landscape mosaic Historically plantations had a strong focus on restoration, or protection against erosion, flooding etc. Now they are used in more combined objectives (for example in Italy, where wood production runs alongside carbon sequestration and substitution roles). The diversity of actors and private (short-term high income) or public (long-term, maximum externalities) expectations are complementary from a societal perspective. Land use sharing with large range of intensification level is the best option. Today 7% of world forests provide 35-40% of timber. Plantations have their role in the landscape, reducing pressure on protected lands. Depending on how you design plantations (composition, structure) you can provide all types of ecosystem services, and it is important to use financial, regulatory and certification tools adequately to get the perfect mosaic. Plantations in the landscape can serve farming thanks to agroforestry, but also have a role in cities with peri-urban plantations or hydrology by saving watershades or support water recharging. In a context of global change there is a need for more guidance, standards, regulation, good practices, payment for actions… but also for real territory governance to make landscapes more resilient and make the most of plantations. Take home messages The land use impact of plantation forests is always much lower than agricultural land use. Science-informed decisions should guide integrated land use and resilient landscape design rather than polarised opinion. In Europe plantation forestry already plays a significant role in meeting environmental, economic and climate policies; going forward investments associated to good practices could enhance these contributions further. More data collection, better gene pool characterisations, more long term field trials and more research coordination, knowledge sharing and policy measures are needed to support the establishment, management and utilisation (markets) of planted forests. Social demand and climate Change are drivers for intensification and more flexible, complex and diverse plantation systems producing a larger set of ecosystem goods & services Adaptation/resilience is essential to secure mitigation, leading to high expectations for genetic resources. Even plantations with non-native species bring lots of colours to the forestry (and science) palette!

  • Orazio C, Yoga S. Plurifor: Transnational Plans for the Management of Forest Risks. 2019. Available at: Consulté septembre 10, 2019.
    Mots-clés : forest hazard, forest risk management, transnational collaboration.

  • Serrano-León H. The potential of investing in breeding forest material for a sustainable intensification of planted forests: management and micro-economic effects in 3 European study cases. 2019. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : Given the limited land resources, increasing the productivity of planted forests and strengthening their management is essential to support a bioeconomy transition that can achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. One way to address the growing global demands for wood and fiber resources and enhance climate change mitigation is by investing in improved forest reproductive material. In addition to improving tree survival to adverse conditions, tree breeding enhances forest growth and resources quality, while reducing the required area for productive land. We analyze the effects of using genetically improved material in terms of silvicultural management, wood production and economic impact in three study cases in Europe with developed breeding programmes (maritime pine in French Landes, Scots pine in Central France, Scots pine in Finland). The growth development of improved stands was simulated assuming standard forest management guidelines and different genetic gain scenarios estimated for the available breeding material; while the financial performance was assessed considering the effect of different wood prices. The improved performance of breeding material resulted in substantially higher production and profitability in all cases, what can encourage forest owners to invest in forest management even in less productive sites. A higher financial stability against the price fluctuations in comparison with using unimproved material can be especially important to reduce the economic impact of unexpected changes in global wood markets. These potential gains from breeding material investment can play an important role on sustainable intensification of forest management under a context of global change.

  • Branco M, Nunes P, Roques A, Fernandes MR, Orazio C, Jactel H. Urban trees facilitate the establishment of non-native forest insects. NeoBiota. 2019;52:25-46. Available at: Consulté novembre 13, 2019.
    Résumé : Cities, due to the presence of ports and airports and the high diversity of trees in streets, parks, and gardens, may play an important role for the introduction of invasive forest pests. We hypothesize that areas of urban forest facilitate the establishment of non-native forest pests. Based on scientific literature and a pan-European database on non-native species feeding on woody plants, we analysed where the first detections occurred in European countries. We collected site data for 137 first detections in Europe and 508 first European country-specific records. We also estimated the percentage of tree cover and suitable habitat (green areas with trees) in buffers around detection points. The large majority of first records (89% for first record in Europe and 88% for first records in a European country) were found in cities or suburban areas. Only 7% of the cases were in forests far from cities. The probability of occurrence decreased sharply with distance from the city. The probability to be detected in urban areas was higher for sap feeders, gall makers, and seed or fruit feeders (&gt;90%) than for bark and wood borers (81%). Detection sites in cities were highly diverse, including public parks, street trees, university campus, arboreta, zoos, and botanical gardens. The average proportion of suitable habitat was less than 10% in urban areas where the species were detected. Further, more than 72% of the cases occurred in sites with less than 20% of tree cover. Hotspots of first detection were identified along the coastal regions of the Mediterranean and Atlantic, and near industrial areas of central Europe. We conclude that urban trees are main facilitators for the establishment of non-native forest pests, and that cities should thus be intensely surveyed. Moreover, as urban areas are highly populated, the involvement of citizens is highly recommended.

  • Correia A, Orazio C. Empirical evidences on the potential adaptive performance of alternative species under current and future climate: First results of the REINFFORCE arboreta network. 2019. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : The forestry sector is strongly dependent on a very limited number of tree species whose long-term performance is increasingly threaten by climate change impacts. In order to sustain their productivity and mitigation capacity, the adaptation potential of our productive forests needs to be increased by diversifying the number of available species with better-adapted provenances. It is therefore crucial to provide forest owners and managers with empirical evidences on the potential performance of alternative species/provenances under a future climate. However, most of the current available information is originated from models that do not account for species/provenance plasticity, nor climatic conditions outside their current distribution. With the aim of reducing the uncertainty in the selection of adapted material, the REINFFORCE arboreta network was established along the European Atlantic arc (between latitudes 37° - 58° N) to test current and alternative species/provenances under contemporary and future climates. We present the field performance results of 33 different tree species under the wide gradient of climatic conditions covered by the 38 innovative network sites. We identified the climate drivers which better explain growth and survival performance, and the best and worst performing species under different climatic conditions. We also present a risk analysis for predicted performance for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 climate change scenarios. Our results will improve the knowledge about the site - climate matching of alternative planting species and the prediction of its behaviour in response to future climate, providing evidences for recommended plantation material with real adaptive capacity to climate change.

  • Orazio C. Évolution des risques forestiers et initiatives en cours pour en améliorer la gestion. Forêt entreprise. Published 2019. Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : Réchauffement climatique, globalisation des échanges, urbanisation, le changement global a des impacts conséquents sur nos forêts ; heureusement de nombreuses initiatives au niveau national et international émergent pour améliorer notre gestion de ces risques.

  • Clopeau A, Orazio C. El mercado internacional de la resina. Tierra de pinares. 2019;(2). Available at: Consulté sans date.

  • Freer-Smith P, Muys B, Bozzano M, et al. Plantation forests in Europe: challenges and opportunities. European Forest Institute; 2019:52. Available at: Consulté septembre 3, 2020.

  • Christophe Orazio. Planted forest : The big opportunity for forest recovery in Chile and Uruguay. Forest Information Billboard. Published janvier 3, 2019. Consulté sans date.

  • Iñigo Escamochero Osa, Pedro Pablo Ranz Vega, Alfredo Fernández Landa, Christophe Orazio. Blogeo : aplicación de captura de datos en campo. Foresta. 2018;(72):65-67. Available at: Consulté sans date.

  • Correia H, Almeida H, Branco M, et al. Early Survival and Growth Plasticity of 33 Species Planted in 38 Arboreta across the European Atlantic Area. Forests. 2018;9(10):630. Available at: Consulté novembre 7, 2018.

  • Orazio C, Carnus J-M, Lesgourgues Y. European Institute of Planted Forests: 20 years of networking. Cestas, France: IEFC; 2018. Available at: Consulté sans date.
  • Serrano-León H, Orazio C, Ahtikoski A, Sonesson J, Perrot T, Hunert A. Economic effects of including innovative forest genetic resources’ management options from a forest-owner’s perspective. Deliverable D5.2. Bordeaux: EFIPLANT; 2018:109.

  • Comité Scientifique Régional AcclimaTerra. ANTICIPER LES CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES EN NOUVELLE-AQUITAINE . POUR AGIR DANS LES TERRITOIRES - Rapport synthétique. Région Nouvelle-Aquitaine; 2018:96. Available at: Consulté sans date.

  • Gardiner B, Mauri E, Orazio C. Recommandations du projet PLURIFOR au «Plan national de gestion de crise tempête pour la filière forêt-bois» en France. Bordeuax: EFIPLANT; 2018:11. Available at: Recommandations du projet PLURIFOR au «Plan national de gestion de crise tempête pour la filière forêt-bois» en France. Consulté sans date.

  • Comité Scientifique Régional AcclimaTerra. ANTICIPER LES CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES EN NOUVELLE-AQUITAINE . POUR AGIR DANS LES TERRITOIRES. Région Nouvelle-Aquitaine; 2018:488. Available at: Consulté sans date.

  • Orazio C, Montoya RC, Nataša Lovrić. Revue des réglementations en place en Europe pour l'utilisation des ressources forestières étrangères et conséquences de l'adoption du traité de Nagoya pour les opérateurs R&D forestiers en France. Bordeaux; 2018:15. Available at: Consulté mars 28, 2019.

  • Orazio C. FORESTRIALS Online Database The best way to have your long term monitoring forest trials Known Why to use it? • Visibility How to use it? 2018. Available at: Consulté mars 28, 2019.

  • Orazio C. Résultat des simulations SIMMEM sur la zone de Pontenx les Forges (100 000ha). 2017. Available at: Consulté février 5, 2017.
  • Green T, Orazio C, Kies U, Edwards D. The SIMWOOD project: A demonstration of the potential to increase wood mobilisation. Policy Brief. Unpublished; 2017:15.
  • Weiss, Gerhard, Pelli P, Orazio C, Saana Tykka, Ivana Zivojinovic, Alice Ludvig. Forest industry clusters as innovation systems: analysing innovation support frameworks in five European regions. Austrian Journal of Forest Science. 2017;(2017(2):119–148.

  • Arbez M, Carnus J-M, Kremer A, et al. Forêts d'hier et de demain, 50 ans de recherche en aquitaine. LGPA-Editions. Pessac: Presses Universtaires de Bordeaux; 2017.

  • Orazio C, Kies U, Edwards D. Handbook for wood mobilisation in Europe. Measures for increasing wood supply from sustainably managed forests. IEFC. EFI; 2017. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : Wood is a very versatile raw material and thus an important resource for many industries, such as construction, furniture, pulp and paper, bioenergy and biorefineries (new chemical products). Using wood is one of the safest ways to reduce the CO2 emissions that are the main cause of climate change. Already today, a variety of innovative products can be produced from wood which are expected to stimulate significant growth of the forest-based sector within the green economy. Mobilising more wood therefore offers a major opportunity for Europe to reduce its impacts on the environment and develop a sustainable biobased economy. Today, Europe’s large unused wood potential is ‘locked’ in forests where harvesting is limited due to complex barriers associated with regulation, accessibility, ownership structures and other technical, social and economic factors. A large share of the unused potential can be mobilised through more active forest management and without disturbing other forest functions. This handbook aims to raise awareness of the challenges and opportunities of wood mobilisation from managed forests by increasing the sustainable harvesting of wood. Based on a survey of initiatives and pilot projects in several European countries, the main barriers impeding wood mobilisation are presented along with a set of corresponding measures and interventions that are considered capable of lifting these barriers. It provides a thorough overview of the topic from a European perspective and is aimed at practitioners and policy makers in the forest-based sector. It is also useful as an introduction for readers interested in wood and biomass who have a different background, for example in biochemistry, new materials or renewable energies. The handbook is an outcome of the EU-funded SIMWOOD project. The results of which are accessible through the websites and

  • Jeffries B. Plantations for people, planet and prosperity - 10 years of the New Generation Plantations Platform 2007-2017. Lisbon: New Generation Plantations; 2017. Available at: Consulté sans date.

  • Orazio C, Cordero Montoya R, Régolini M, et al. Decision Support Tools and Strategies to Simulate Forest Landscape Evolutions Integrating Forest Owner Behaviour: A Review from the Case Studies of the European Project, INTEGRAL. Sustainability. 2017;9(5):599. Available at: Consulté mai 23, 2017.

  • Orazio C, Bastien J-C. France. Dans: Hasenauer hubert, Gazda A, Konnert M, et al., éd. Non-Native Tree Species for European Forest: Experiences, Risks and Opportunities. COST ACTION FP1403 NNEXT Country reports. University of Natural Ressources and Life Sciences. Vienna, Austria.; 2016:130-139.

  • Egbert Beuker ; José Climent; Christophe Orazio; Ricardo Alia ; Regina Chambel ; an Kowalczyk,. Guidelines for the deployment of basic materials and seed transfer. TREES4FUTURE; 2016:27. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : As a result of climate change the presently used deployment areas for forest reproductive material (FRM) may not be the optimal in the near future. One way to address this problem is assisted migratio n (AM), which is defined as the human assisted movement of species in response to climate change. To estimate the optimal rate of transfer to be recommended, data from provenance trials can be used. Numerous provenance trials have been established during t he last century for many tree species. The response of the provenances to a transfer is the result of a combination of genetic change and phenotypic plasticity. On the other hand, the effects of a transfer on phenology, pests and diseases as well as pertur bations are not covered well by provenance trials. In order for assisted migration to be functional in Europe it is important that transfer of FRM can be applied without bothering political borders . Moreover, phenotypic plasticity is a relevant criterion t o be consider ed, but the adaptive/neutral/non - adaptive nature of plasticity for each trait or groups of traits must be taken into account. I t is very important that climate data on the smallest resolution available is used, and that also the most sophistic ated climate change scenarios are used. This paper presents three practical examples on the use of data from provenance trials for the definition of future deployment areas for FRM in Europe .

  • Lefevre C, Pichot C, Beuker E, et al. Intensive study sites. Dans: Evolution of trees and forest comunities, Ten years of the EVOLTREE network. IEFC. Bordeaux; 2016:11-14.

  • Orazio C. Sustainable Planted Forests to Meet Growing Global Needs. IUFRO Spotlight. 2016;(41):2. Available at: Consulté février 22, 2017.
  • Diez Iglesias N. Adaptation of forest species to climate change analysis of the frequency and nature of health damage over the reinfforce arboreta.; 2016.
    Résumé : Understanding how forest tree species behave in different climatic conditions is essential to develop adaptation strategies to ongoing climate warming. This report analyses the sanitary state of some native and exotic tree species over a climatic gradient to understand the climate effects on their susceptibility to be attacked by some pests or diseases. The analysis was based on the REINFFORCE (“REsource INFrastructures for monitoring, adapting and protecting european atlantic FORests under Changing climatE”) arboreta network with the data collected for three native species, with three provenances each, and eight exotic species. We compared the probability of presenting different pests or diseases, depending on environmental conditions, species provenances in their distribution range, region of origin of the species (exotic vs. native) and existence of congeneric species in Europe for exotic species. Results show the importance of climatic conditions on biotic and abiotic damage suffered by the trees, mainly temperature variables (number of frost days or the mean temperature of the coldest month). We also found that native species are more susceptible to health damage than exotic ones, verifying the enemy release hypothesis (ERH). Finally, we showed that exotic tree species with congeneric native species in Europe are more likely to be attacked by biotic agents than exotic species with no native congeneric (spill-over hypothesis). This report is also an exploratory study, in which the REINFFORCE health assessment protocol was tested for a first assessment to ensure that it provides accurate information of the real health state.

  • Orazio C. Interest of common garden approach for selecting tree species to be associated in mixture REINFFORCE Network example. 2016. Available at: Consulté sans date.
  • Lupi E. Performance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Fanco) provenances from California in France and other Atlantic Europe regions; opportunities and risks in a changing climate context. Frieburg: UNIFRIEBURG; 2016:82.
    Résumé : Global warming is threatening the survival and performances of trees, which are essential for the current dilemma of C sequestration and biomass production. Out of many strategies to maintain those trees abilities, one is the introduction of non-native species, among which the Douglas fir provenances stand out for their qualities and quantity of wood produced and their fast growth. Using two data networks (the REINFFORCE network and a south-east network), we assessed the effect of climate, site and genetic factors on the survival and growth of several Douglas fir provenances including the coastal and interior regions of California. Additionally effects of these factors on architectural defects and bud break were also investigated. In usual environmental conditions for the Douglas fir, northern provenances are known to be the most appropriate. However results from comparisons between Californian and Oregon seed sources, settle the superiority of the Californian provenances in the southern sites. At older ages (23-39 years old) under Mediterranean climate, Californian provenances were far superior to the Oregon provenances for survival rate and showed a competitive growth. However, under Atlantic climate (McKnight T.L., et al., 2000, the Oregon provenances had a better height growth at a young age (5 years old) while the Californian provenances still had a better survival rate. Additionally the Californian provenances did not display architectural defects, except a slight trend in having closed insertion angles and big branches. Therefore this work shows the potentialities of the Californian provenances under two different climates at two different age stages. In the context of climate change the Californian Douglas fir is rated as valuable material for a future breeding program.
  • Cordero R, Orazio C. REINFFORCE / REsource INFrastructure for monitoring and adapting European Atlantic FORest under Changing climatE. 2016.

  • Richard Sikkema, Sarah Mubareka, Roland Schreiber, et al. Sustainable inovative mobilisation of Wood - D5.1 - Information and recomendations for policy-makers and research priorities in view od Horizon 2020.; 2016:35. Available at: Deliverables submitted to EC/D5 1_SIMWOOD_Information recommendation Horizon 2020(0.1).pdf. Consulté sans date.
  • Carnus J-M, Orazio C. Ecosystem Services from European Planted Forests: Evolving Demand and Supply in Atlantic Regions. 2016.

  • Arnaud Sergent, Christophe Orazio, Cordero-Debets Rebecca, Vincent Banos, Baptiste Hautdidier, Philippe Deuffic. Roadmaps for the future, Case study report: FRANCE.; 2015. Available at: Consulté août 11, 2016.

  • Jean-Michel Carnus et André Richter, meriem fournier, Stephane greslier, et al. PNFB, Plan National Forêt Bois – GT4 Recherche, Développement, Innovation RAPPORT DE SYNTHESE. Paris; 2015:24. Available at: Consulté sans date.
  • Régolini M, Jactel H, Landmann G, Orazio C. Scope, Objectives and Services. Dans: Landmann G, Held A, Schuck A, Brusselen JV, éd. European Forests at Risk. A scoping study in support of the development of a European Forest Risk Facility. Freiburg: European Forest Institute; 2015:12-19.

  • Giry C, Picard O, Kleinschmit A, et al. Partenariats européens pour l’innovation - PEI « Pour une agriculture productive et durable » Propositions pour le secteur forestier. 2015. Available at: Consulté sans date.
  • Landmann G, Held A, Schuck A, Brusselen JV. European Forests at Risk. A scoping study in support of the development of a European Forest Risk Facility. Freiburg: European Forest Institute; 2015.

  • Sarah Fermet-Quinet, Christophe Orazio. Institutional tools for risk management: the case of soil degradation management. Dans: Soil Degradation Risks in European Planted Forest Proceedings. Servicio central de publicaciones del gobierno vasco. Vitoria-Gasteiz; 2015:28-32. Available at: Consulté sans date.
  • Orazio C, Cordero R. Gestion et partage des données du réseau Reinfforce. Forêt entreprise. 2015;(223):45-47.
    Résumé : Les partenaires du réseau Reinfforce ont récemment signé un engagement pour partager les données qu'ils collecteront sur les dispositifs du réseau pendant 15 ans. L'accord de consortium prévoit que pour assu-rer une bonne valorisation de ces données, elles seront partagées et accessibles par tous, avec une propriété intellectuelle pour chaque orga-nisme gestionnaire de site pendant 5 ans. Passé ce délai, l'accès aux données est ouvert à l'en-semble des partenaires du réseau Reinfforce. Si d'un point de vue théorique ce travail de partage est simple, d'un point de vue technique il a imposé plusieurs mesures : > la mise en place de protocoles communs pour la description des sites et les données récoltées tout le long de la vie du réseau, > la mise en place d'un outil informatique permettant l'édition de données en local et à distance, tout en assurant la cohérence des données collectées sur tous les sites pendant 15 ans, > le développement d'un outil pour la récolte de données sur le terrain. Le protocole commun Les données collectées étant des données communément récoltées par les acteurs du monde forestier, les principales difficultés à surmonter furent sur les méthodes, les défini-tions, les unités de mesure et les encodages afin de prendre en compte les pratiques de 10 organismes dans 4 pays différents. Pour assurer l'homogénéité des données à mesurer sur les sites Reinfforce (suivi de la croissance, état sanitaire et phénologie), les partenaires du réseau se sont entendus sur les différentes grandeurs à suivre sur les différents sites ainsi que sur un protocole commun. La liste des variables mesurées sur le terrain est présentée dans le tableau ci-contre, et la dernière version du protocole utilisé par les partenaires est disponible en ligne sur le site du réseau :

  • Branco M, Brockerhoff EG, Castagneyrol B, Orazio C, Jactel H. Host range expansion of native insects to exotic trees increases with area of introduction and the presence of congeneric native trees. Saura S, éd. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2015;52(1):69-77. Available at: Consulté avril 13, 2015.

  • Biber P, Borges J, Moshammer R, et al. How Sensitive Are Ecosystem Services in European Forest Landscapes to Silvicultural Treatment? Forests. 2015;6(5):1666-1695. Available at: Consulté mai 18, 2015.
    Résumé : While sustainable forestry in Europe is characterized by the provision of a multitude of forest ecosystem services, there exists no comprehensive study that scrutinizes their sensitivity to forest management on a pan-European scale, so far. We compile scenario runs from regionally tailored forest growth models and Decision Support Systems (DSS) from 20 case studies throughout Europe and analyze whether the ecosystem service provision depends on management intensity and other co-variables, comprising regional affiliation, social environment, and tree species composition. The simulation runs provide information about the case-specifically most important ecosystem services in terms of appropriate indicators. We found a strong positive correlation between management intensity and wood production, but only weak correlation with protective and socioeconomic forest functions. Interestingly, depending on the forest region, we found that biodiversity can react in both ways, positively and negatively, to increased management intensity. Thus, it may be in tradeoff or in synergy with wood production and forest resource maintenance. The covariables species composition and social environment are of punctual interest only, while the affiliation to a certain region often makes an important difference in terms of an ecosystem service’s treatment sensitivity.

  • Orazio C, Cordero R. Un réseau d’arboretums face au changement climatique. Forêt entreprise. 2015;(223):32-34. Available at:'arboretums_face_au_changement_climatique. Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : REINFFORCE est une infrastructure comprenant un réseau de sites de démonstration et un réseau d'arboretums qui s'étend sur l'arc atlan-tique et qui agira comme un « laboratoire naturel » pour aider la recherche forestière à trouver des réponses sur l'adaptation des forêts au changement climatique. Le réseau d'arboretums a pour objectif principal d'améliorer notre compréhension sur la capa-cité des essences forestières à faire face au climat futur, en comparant le même matériel génétique, produit sous les mêmes conditions, mais soumis à différents contextes climatiques et édaphiques. L'installation des arboretums a commencé en 2009 et s'est achevée en novembre 2013 ; cela a été un processus de 5 ans où nous avons récolté les graines de 38 espèces d'arbres pour les produire, les expé-dier et les planter dans 4 pays différents. Une période minimale de 15 ans sera nécessaire pour effectuer des analyses qui permettront de formuler des recommandations robustes sur les essences les plus adaptées au chan-gement climatique. Un réseau de 38 arboretums sur l'arc atlantique La localisation des sites le long d'un gradient nord-sud (latitude 37° à 56° Nord) permettra d'observer les variations des cycles de crois-sance des essences par rapport au climat, de suivre l'évolution de la santé des essences et de leur comportement face à certaines conditions extrêmes comme le gel, les tempêtes, la sécheresse, etc. C'est un grand avantage qu'offrent les essais in situ par rapport aux laboratoires ou aux chambres climatiques : ils permettent d'appréhender les effets pro-voqués par la combinaison d'aléas et d'évé-nements climatiques extrêmes sur les arbres dans leur environnement naturel. Pour suivre ces événements climatiques, chaque arbore-tum fait l'objet d'un suivi météorologique qui permet d'enregistrer les données journalières de paramètres précis. Les 38 arboretums sont répartis sur 4 ré-gions biogéographiques

  • Payn T, Carnus J-M, Freer-Smith P, et al. Changes in planted forests and future global implications. Forest Ecology and Management. 2015;352:57-67. Available at: Consulté septembre 14, 2015.
  • Carnus J-M, Orazio C, Hayes S. New IUFRO Task force on sustainability of planted forests. 2015;23(1):9.

  • Orazio C, Cordero R, Hautdidier B, Meredieu C, Vallet P. Simulation de l’évolution de la dynamique forestière dans les Landes de Gascogne sous différents scénarios socioéconomiques. Revue Forestière Française. 2015;(6):493-514. Available at: Consulté novembre 29, 2016.

  • Sotirov M, Hoogstra-Klein M, Orazio C, et al. Shaping the future of sustainable forest management. 2015;23(1):10-11. Available at: Consulté mai 1, 2017.
  • Régolini M, Jactel H, Landmann G, Orazio C. Pest, Insects and Diseases. Dans: Landmann G, Held A, Schuck A, Brusselen JV, éd. European Forests at Risk. A scoping study in support of the development of a European Forest Risk Facility. Freiburg: European Forest Institute; 2015:44-56.

  • Fermet-Quinet S, Régolini M, Orazio C, et al. Gestion intégrée des risques en forêt, Gestion integrada de los riesgos en los bosques plantados, Gestão integrada dos riscos nas florestas cultivadas.; 2014. Available at: Consulté novembre 13, 2014.

  • Payn T, Carnus J, Freer-Smith P, Orazio C, Nabuurs G-J. Third International Congress on Planted Forests: Planted Forests on the Globe - Renewable Resources for the Future. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science. 2014;44(Suppl 1):S1. Available at: Consulté avril 13, 2015.
  • Orazio C, Régolini M, Meredieu C, et al. Gestion Intégrée des risques en forêt : l´expérience du projet FORRISK. Innovations Agronomiques. 2014;(41):69-77.
    Résumé : In this article, integrated risk management in forests is defined as the combination of the following different parameters at various scales: prevention and control, silvicultural practices related to risk, ecological and economic constraints, the manageme nt of multiple hazards and the role of institutions and legal rules that influence risk management. The partners of the FORRISK project (interreg SUDOE project 2012-2014) studied these parameters in South West Europe and proposed some technical solutions and recommendations. Examples of outputs from the project include risk cartographies, the development of silvicultural practices, risk models, the analysis of multiples hazards and comparisons of existing tools for risk management. These results are provide d for biotic hazards (such as Gonipterus platensis damaging eucalypts in Portugal, Fusarium circinatum on Pinus radiata in Euskadi or the pine processionary moth on maritime pine in Aquitaine), as well as abiotic hazards (such as fire in Spain or storms in Aquitaine and Euskadi).

  • Sarah Fermet-Quinet, Margot Régolini, Christophe Orazio, et al. Outils institutionnels, systèmes et organisations pour la gestion des risques naturels dans les régions du projet FORRISK. 2014. Available at: Consulté juillet 3, 2015.

  • Orazio C, Srdjan Stojnic, Stojanović D, Nahia Gartzia, Hayes S. Influence du changement climatique sur les forêts européennes et sur le secteur forestier - 15238. 2014. Available at: Consulté janvier 7, 2019.

  • Nabuurs G-J, Schelhaas M-J, Orazio C, Hengeveld G, Tome M, Farrell EP. European perspective on the development of planted forests, including projections to 2065. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science. 2014;44(Suppl 1):S8. Available at: Consulté avril 13, 2015.

  • Christophe Orazio, Rebeca Cordero Debets, Luisa Di Lucchio, et al. Arboretum and demonstration site catalogue REINFFORCE (REsource INFrastructures for monitoring, adapting and protecting European Atlantic FORests under Changing climate). IEFC.; 2013. Available at: Consulté août 17, 2015.

  • Gardiner B. Living with storm damage to forests. Joensuu: European Forestry Institute; 2013.

  • Christophe Orazio, Srdjan Stojnic, Dejan Stojanović, Nahia Gartzia, Stéphanie Hayes. The Influence of Climate Change on European Forests and the Forest Sector. 2013:16. Available at: Consulté juillet 3, 2015.

  • Orazio C, DI LUCCHIO L, Almeida MH, et al. State of the Art on Forest Adaptation in the European Atlantic Area National and Regional Approaches Background material for REINFFORCE project Collected on 2009-2010. IEFC; 2013:125. Available at: Consulté janvier 12, 2017.

  • Orazio C, Carnus J-M. Résumé pour les décideurs du 3e Congrès international des forêts cultivées. Revue Forestière Française. 2013;LXV(3):265-270. Available at: Consulté juillet 3, 2015.

  • Christophe Orazio, Rebeca Cordero Debets, Luisa Di Lucchio Alejandro Cantero, et al. Arboretum and demonstration site catalogue REINFFORCE (REsource INFrastructures for monitoring, adapting and protecting European Atlantic FORests under Changing climate). 2013. Available at: Consulté septembre 2, 2016.
  • Orazio C, Debets RC, Cantero LDLA, et al. Arboretum and demonstration site catalogue REINFFORCE (REsource INFrastructures for monitoring, adapting and protecting European Atlantic FORests under Changing climate). IEFC-EFIATLANTIC. Site de recherche forêt-bois 69, route d’Arcachon, 33612 CESTAS. France.; 2013.

  • Orazio C, Srdjan Stojnic, Stojanović D, Nahia Gartzia, Hayes S. The Influence of Climate Change on European Forests and the Forest Sector. EFIATLANTIC; 2013. Available at: Consulté juin 10, 2020.

  • Schuck A, Mavsar R, Harou P, et al. Des bureaux régionaux pour des thèmes de recherche spécifiques aux régions. Revue Forestière Française. 2013;(2). Available at: Consulté août 4, 2015.

  • Planted forest constitute a strategic but vulnerable resources for future green economy - Summary Report of the 3rd International Congress on Planted Forests. Planted forest constitute a strategic but vulnerable resources for future green economy - Summary Report of the 3rd International Congress on Planted Forests.; 2013:17. Available at: Consulté décembre 1, 2017.

  • Jactel H, Branco M, Duncker P, et al. A Multicriteria Risk Analysis to Evaluate Impacts of Forest Management Alternatives on Forest Health in Europe. Ecology and Society. 2012;17(4). Available at: Consulté mars 28, 2014.

  • Jacquet J-S, Orazio C, Jactel H. Defoliation by processionary moth significantly reduces tree growth: a quantitative review. Annals of Forest Science. 2012;69(8):857-866. Available at: Consulté mars 28, 2014.

  • Martres J-L, Carnus J-M, Orazio C. Les indicateurs MCPFE sont-ils intéressants pour les forêts plantées ?. EFI; 2011. Available at: Consulté janvier 12, 2017.
    Résumé : ResearchGate is a network dedicated to science and research. Connect, collaborate and discover scientific publications, jobs and conferences. All for free.

  • Meredieu C, Orazio C, Baptista-Coelho M, Tomé M. Internet database on forest models, EFORWOOD project, Deliverable D 2.5.5.; 2011:8. Available at: Consulté mai 6, 2017.

  • Martres J-L, Carnus J-M, Orazio C. Are MCPFE indicators suitable for planted forests? summary and comparative analysis of the FORSEE project results: assessment and relevance of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management in cultivated forests. Joensuu: European Forest Institute; 2011.

  • Orazio C, Ureña Lara F, Di Lucchio L. Species and genetic units selection process for REINFFORCE ARBORETA. Pierroton, France: IEFC; 2011. Available at: Consulté mars 24, 2015.

  • Cornet N. La rentabilité forestière en question : Comparaison des approches et méthodes d’évaluation économique des services sociaux et environnementaux, vers une estimation de la valeur économique totale des forêts d’Aquitaine et d’Euskadi. Bordeaux; 2011:12. Available at: Consulté janvier 9, 2017.
  • Martres JL, Carnus JM, Orazio C. Are MCPFE indicators suitable for planted forests? Discussion Paper - European Forest Institute (EFI). 2011;(16):48 pp.-48 pp.
    Résumé : This paper provides a constructive critique of indicators for sustainable forest management and aims to show their value and their limitations. According to the interpretation of the definitions, the way to collect data, and the ecological and economical context, the realities described by these indicators are not homogeneous and comparable at the inter-regional level. By applying the same set of indicators with the same protocols scientifcally based in eight Atlantic regions, various results are obtained extracted from the regional studies and outlined in this paper. The variability in the quality of indicators and the limits of their comparability is demonstrated. The diversity of indicators to assess Sustainable Forest Management, the weaknesses of the existing ones and the benefits of new ones that were tested during the project are illustrated. All reports presented in this paper can be downloaded from:
  • Gardiner B, Blennow K, Carnus JM, et al. Destructive storms in European forests: past and forthcoming impacts. (Gardiner B, Blennow K, Carnus JM, et al., éd.).; 2010.
    Résumé : This paper reports on the storm damage and classification, contributing factors, current and future trends and existing responses to storms of European forests. It is emphasized that active integrated management of all risks to forests (abiotic and biotic) should become part of standard forest practice in Europe.

  • FORSEE FIELD MANUAL. FORSEE FIELD MANUAL. Pierroton: IEFC; 2010. Available at: Consulté avril 4, 2018.
    Résumé : protocol for field measurement and site description used in sustainability indicator assessment - project FORSEE -

  • yves lesgourgues, Gaëlle Abraham, Henri Husson, et al. Tempête du 24 janvier 2009 : Éléments de réflexion pour aborder la reconstitution forestière du Massif des Landes de Gascogne. Bordeaux: CRPF Aquitaine; 2009:134. Available at: Consulté janvier 23, 2019.

  • Jactel H, Nicoll BC, Branco M, et al. The influences of forest stand management on biotic and abiotic risks of damage. Annals of Forest Science. 2009;66(7):701-701. Available at: Consulté mars 28, 2014.

  • Orazio C, Carnus JM, Dedrick S, Verheyen K. Biodiversity in the context of conversion and plantation forestry. Dans: Dedrick S, Spiecker H, Orazio C, Tome M, Martinez I, éd. Discussion Paper - European Forest Institute (EFI).; 2007:65-67.
    Résumé : This paper presents a comparative analysis of the different components and levels of biodiversity (genetic, species and landscape) in a plantation/rotation system, and a forest system after conversion. The issues that are in conflict or in harmony with the two systems are identified. Finally, a list of ideas and concepts with some future research concern is provided.

  • Plantation or conversion - the debate !: ideas presented and discussed at a joint EFI Project Centre conference held 21-23 May 2006 in Freiburg, Germany. Plantation or conversion - the debate !: ideas presented and discussed at a joint EFI Project Centre conference held 21-23 May 2006 in Freiburg, Germany. (Dedrick S, European Forest Institute, éd.). Joensuu, Finland: European Forest Institute; 2007.

  • Poissonet M, Orazio C, Carnus J-M. Projet FORSEE Un réseau de zones pilotes pour la gestion durable des forêts de l’Arc Atlantique Rapport final Aquitaine PARTIE 1 : SYNTHESE. IEFC; 2007:135. Available at: Consulté sans date.

  • Dedrick S, Spiecker H, Orazio C, Tome M, Martinez I. Plantation or conversion - the debate ! Ideas presented and discussed at a joint EFI Project-Centre conference, Freiburg, Germany, 21-23 May 2006. Dans: Dedrick S, Spiecker H, Orazio C, Tome M, Martinez I, éd. Discussion Paper - European Forest Institute (EFI).; 2007:98 pp.-98 pp.
    Résumé : This proceedings contains the summaries of the 18 papers focusing on: inventory methods, forest production (conversion techniques), soil and water, biodiversity, forest health (risk), and forest economics.

  • Christophe Orazio, mikaël poissonet, Jean-michel Carnus. Projet FORSEE Un réseau de zones pilotes pour la gestion durable des forêts de l’Arc Atlantique Rapport final régional Aquitaine PARTIE 2 : Matériel et Méthode. IEFC; 2007. Available at: Consulté février 15, 2017.

  • Orazio C. FORSEE rapport final. IEFC; 2007:79. Available at: Consulté mars 28, 2014.

  • Orazio C, Carnus J-M. Main europen forest tree species : area, growing stock and increment evaluated in 206. 2006. Available at: Consulté août 26, 2020.

  • Christophe Orazio, Margarida Tomé, Antoine Colin, et al. FORSEE PROJECT A network of 10 pilot zones to test and improve criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management at regional level in Atlantic European countries Rationale and Workplan Interim report July 2005. Cestas: IEFC; 2006:196. Available at: Consulté février 21, 2017.
    Note Note
    <p><!--StartFragment-->DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.26746.29127<!--EndFragment--></p>

  • Carnus JM, Tome M, Orazio C. Integrated approach and inventory system for the evaluation of sustainable forest management indicators at local scales in Western European regions. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science. 2005;35(2/3):246-265. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : In the past decade, sustainability of forests has been assessed through monitoring of widely-accepted criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. Evaluation of sustainable forest management indicators has generally been conducted at national levels on the basis of forest inventory data and agreed lists of indicators from inter-governmental processes. In parallel, forest certification schemes and processes have been developed and are generally conducted at smaller scales such as regional or management unit levels. Increasingly, sustainable forest management indicators will need to be evaluated at those local scales to answer public questions and facilitate social dialogue on the basis of scientifically sound and pertinent information. To undertake this type of evaluation within homogeneous bio-geographic zones and a socio-economic context, an integrated approach is proposed combining (i) use of reference pilot zones, (ii) elaboration of indicators and evaluation of their pertinence through scientific studies for priority domains (carbon sequestration, forest damage, soil disturbance, landscape patterns and biodiversity, global value of products and services), (iii) comparative test of common protocols, and (iv) organization and sharing of forest information at regional levels with stakeholders and public. Preliminary testing has been carried out on key indicators corresponding to priority issues for planted forests of European Atlantic regions.

  • Guevara MA, Chagne D, Almeida MH, et al. Isolation and characterization of nuclear microsatellite loci in Pinus pinaster Ait. Molecular Ecology Notes. 2005;5(1):57-59. Available at: Consulté juillet 3, 2015.
  • Carnus J-M, Tomé M, Orazio C. Integrated approach for the evaluation of SFM indicators at local scales. Forests in the balance: linking tradition and technology. 2005;7(5):200.
  • Forest soils under global and local changes. Proceedings of IUFRO-IUSS International Symposium. Forest soils under global and local changes. Proceedings of IUFRO-IUSS International Symposium. (Carnus J-M, Orazio C, éd.). Bordeaux: IEFC; 2004.

  • Colin A, Orazio C, Carnus J-M. Improving and advancing coordination of forest research and development in Europe. Final report, project IMACFORD - Task B1 – Sustainable development of forestry-wood chains in the context of fast-growing European forests - QLK5-CT-2002-3022.; 2003. Available at: Consulté sans date.

  • Samalens J-C. Atlas Forestier de l'arc Atlantique.; 2002. Available at: Consulté sans date.
  • Inge Van Halder. Insectes ravageurs et maladies des forêts du sud de l'Europe,. IEFC.; 2002.
  • Carnus JM, Dewar R, Loustau D, Tomé M, Orazio C. Proceedings of the international workshop 'Models for the sustainable management of temperate plantation forests' held in Bordeaux, France, 7-9 September 2000 as a satellite activity of the 7th EFI annual conference in Lisbon, Portugal, 2-4 September 2000. Carnus JM, Dewar R, Loustau D, Tome^acute^ M, Orazio C, éd. EFI Proceedings. 2001;(41):142 pp.-142 pp.
    Résumé : The proceedings include 10 papers from the workshop which aimed to review the current use of models in understanding and quantifying sustainable management of plantation forests, and to encourage links between tree and soil modellers and between researchers and end users.

  • Models for the Sustainable Management of Temperete Plantation Forests. Models for the Sustainable Management of Temperete Plantation Forests. EFI. (Carnus J-M, Dewar R, Loustau D, Tomé M, Orazio C, éd.).; 2001. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : Proceedings of the International Conference, Bordeaux, France, 7–9 September, 2000

  • Orazio C, Carnus J-M, Mc Farlane P, Le treut H, Jactel H, Crémière L. Gestion durable et risque climatique - Conférence et table ronde de Souston 7 juin 2000. IEFC. Souston; 2000. Available at: Consulté sans date.

  • Orazio C. Etude bibliographique sur les effets du brûlage dirigée sur l'écosystème forestier. Le muy; 1999:140. Available at:'ECOSYSTEME_FORESTIER. Consulté mars 3, 2016.

  • Tassin J, Michon R, Orazio C. Substitution of tree-species in declining Casuarina equisetifolia stands with a protection role in Reunion. Bulletin Technique - Office National des Forets. 1998;(36):91-96. Available at: Consulté sans date.
    Résumé : In the context of planning restoration of the forest of Etang Sale (Reunion Island), an experimental programme led jointly by CIRAD (Forest Department) and Office National des Forets was set up in 1988 for choosing tree species to replace declining Casuarina equisetifolia. A detailed study considered the factors responsible for the decline of Casuarina equisetifolia, showing among others the increasing role of the attacks by an insect, Coelosterna scabrator [ Cerosterna scabrator]. Methods of preventive treatment are suggested. Among trees tested, several species were chosen: Acacia auriculiformis, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus citriodora, Grevillea robusta, Khaya senegalensis and Senna siamea, in particular because of their growth, low death rate and their resistance to hurricane winds. These tree species are now used in this reforestation site. Finally, an assessment of the effect of this operation upon the biodiversity was made using a published analysis of relationships between the forest habitat and the coastal bird communities of Reunion.
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